Yes they are at the state level, and indirectly at the federal level. It depends on which state the assisted living residence is in since the definition, regulations, and licensing requirements of an assisted living residence varies from state to state.
You can find state licensing reports to see if your state requires licensing and if the residence and residence administration in question is in compliance. Since assisted living is not standardized or licensed at the national level, state licensing organizations handle the rules, regulations and requirements for assisted living. In the majority of states, all assisted living facilities are inspected at least once a year to ensure they meet the requirements outlines by state law governing these facilities. All of these visits are unannounced and sometimes in response to complaints filed with the state.
Indirectly they are regulated federally by the Americans with Disabilities Act and the Fair Housing Amendments Act. These acts ensure to protect elderly residents who require ADA accommodations and also serve to protect against discrimination against ones handicaps or disabilities.